Heart disease is a catch-all term for a multitude of disorders that affect the structure and function of the heart. Coronary heart disease is a form of heart disease in which the arteries of the heart are unable to provide the heart with adequate oxygen-rich blood. It is the biggest cause of death in the United States. According to the centers for disease control and prevention, 18.2 million American adults have coronary artery disease, making it the most common type of heart disease in the country.
Coronary heart artery disease affects the major coronary arteries located on the heart’s surface. Coronary microvascular disease is a form of heart disease that affects the small arteries in the heart muscle. Women are more prone than men to suffer from coronary microvascular disease.
The type of coronary heart disease determines the cause. Cholesterol, a waxy material that builds up inside the lining of the coronary arteries, forming plaque, is a common cause of coronary artery disease. This deposit can partially or completely obstruct blood flow in the heart’s major arteries. Coronary microvascular disease occurs when the tiny blood vessels in the heart do not function appropriately. Most people can avoid coronary heart artery disease by leading a heart-healthy lifestyle.
Causes Of Coronary Heart Artery Disease
Coronary heart disease refers to what happens when blood flow to your heart becomes restricted or stops owing to the buildup of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. The walls of your arteries might become furred up with fatty deposits over time. This is known as atherosclerosis, and the fatty deposits are known as atheroma.
Atherosclerosis can be induced by lifestyle factors such as smoking and drinking large amounts of alcohol on a regular basis. You’re also more likely to develop atherosclerosis if you have high cholesterol, high blood pressure (hypertension), or diabetes.
The following are the primary symptoms of coronary heart artery disease:
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain (angina).
- Feeling faint.
- Pain throughout the body.
- Feeling sick (nausea).
- Arm or shoulder pain or discomfort
- Weakness, light-headedness, or a cold sweat.
Yet, not everyone experiences the same symptoms, and some people may not experience any at all before being diagnosed with coronary heart disease.
A risk assessment may be performed if a cardiologist believes you are at risk of coronary heart disease. They will interview you about your medical and family history, as well as your lifestyle, and will provide a blood test.
To confirm the heart disease, additional testing, includes:
- A radionuclide scan.
- A treadmill test.
- An MRI scan.
- A CT scan.
- Coronary angiography.
Coronary Heart Disease Treatment
Although there is no cure for coronary heart disease, therapy can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications such as heart attacks.
Treatment can include:
- Changes in lifestyle, such as frequent exercise and quitting smoking.
- Angioplasty is a procedure that uses balloons and stents to repair constricted heart arteries.
Simple lifestyle modifications can lower your risk of developing coronary heart disease. These include:
- Eating a well-balanced diet.
- Taking part in physical activities.
- Giving up smoking.
- Controlling sugar levels and blood cholesterol.
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